By: Marium Khan,
The World Health Organization published a report in 2017 enlisting the ten major causes of deaths across the Globe. The Diabetes ranked at number six on the list, which caused more than 1.59 Million deaths around the world. According to International Federation of Diabetes, one person dies in the world every six seconds. The disease is becoming so prevalent that by 2040, one out of ten adults will have diabetes if the rate remains unchanged. It is the need of the hour to raise the awareness about the disease so that these appalling numbers can be curtailed. That’s why we will discuss the disease, Diabetes Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Care.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease which is also referred by medical practitioners as Diabetes Mellitus. It is a metabolic disorder in which patients have a high level of sugar in the blood and urine. They frequently experience the urination, thirst, and hunger. The term Diabetes Mellitus itself allude this phenomenon from which patients suffer. The word “Diabetes” means “Siphon”, and the word “Mel” means “Honey”, which makes the literal meaning of Diabetes Mellitus as siphoning off the sweet water. The people in the ancient China observed that ants and insects are attracted to the urine of some people so they coined a new term called “Sweet urine disease”.
The human takes energy from the foods. The food taken contains carbohydrates and sugar. In order to get energy, the body converts these ingredients into a special sugar called glucose. The body needs insulin to absorb the glucose so that it can be used and fuel the cells. The patients suffering from diabetes lack either the insulin or the ability to use it. This makes the body cells unable to use glucose which is entered into the bloodstream, which ultimately leaves the high level of sugar in the blood. If the disease left untreated can cause Heart stroke, blindness, kidney failure and damage to nerves in the feet.
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes has three types, Type-1, Type-2 and Gestational Diabetes. According to multiple statistics, approximately, 10% of the diabetic patient suffers from Type-1 Diabetes and 90% patients suffer from type-2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes only affects the female during the period of pregnancy.
Type-1 diabetes is also referred as insulin dependent Diabetes. The people get this type of diabetes usually before the age of 40 and in many cases, it is genetically inherited. Some may affect from it in the childhood, that’s it is also called juvenile diabetes. The body lacks the enough insulin because it creates the antibodies that damage the pancreas, which is essential for developing the insulin. The damaged pancreas is unable to create enough insulin, which helps the body cells to get sugar from the blood.
Type-2 Diabetes is most prevalent and it is also referred as Non-insulin dependent diabetes. This type of diabetes affects the people who are older than 30 years. The chances of getting this diabetes increase with the age factor. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas produces the insulin more than the normal amount and the body is unable to respond due to insulin resistance. The reduction in the beta cell of the insulin exacerbates the glucose level. The lever continues to produce glucose despite its excessive level, which ultimately results in increased level of sugar in the blood.
Gestational Diabetes is a type of diabetes which affects females during their period of pregnancy due to the hormonal changes in their body. According to various statistics, it affects 2%- 10% women in their pregnancy. The Significant hormonal changes contribute to the imbalance in the blood sugar level. The imbalance gets resolved once the baby is born, but 35-60% of the women suffer from obesity and overweight and develop type-2 diabetes after the pregnancy.
The diabetic patients may be unaware of the fact that he has diabetes, especially in the initial stages when the symptoms are not present. But most people have certain symptoms, which is a potential red flag for them. The most common symptoms of the disease are dehydration, thirst, Weight loss in spite of increased appetite, fatigue, lethargy, stupor, Nausea, Vomiting, abdominal pain, blurred vision, hyperventilation and infections of the skin, bladder, & vaginal areas. If one has the following symptoms, he must consult the doctor for diagnosing the correct disease and proper medication.
The causes of type-1 diabetes are exactly unknown, but researchers are agreed that the body’s own immune system which fights against harmful bacteria and viruses destroys the insulin-producing capability. They also claim that the genes play a vital role in determining the probability of getting type-1 diabetes. Researchers have stated that type-1 affects those people who have an HLA Complex. Human Leukocyte Antigen is the type of antigen. An antigen has the responsibility to trigger immune system in the body. Whenever the immune system is triggered, it creates the antibodies like to fight the infection. The T-cell which is responsible for creating antibodies turns against the beta cell if the antigens are present in the virus. The beta cell which makes the insulin get damaged in the process and ultimately body has inadequate insulin to absorb sugar in the blood. Some viruses which trigger against the beta cells include B Virus, German measles, Mumps, and Rota Virus.
Insulin resistance is the main cause of type-2 Diabetes. The genetics do play role in type-2, which means it can be hereditary. But researchers have observed that it is very difficult to determine which genes carry the risk of disease. Apart from the genetics, the lifestyle of the person is the main cause of this type of diabetes. The combination of both may worsen the severity of the disease. The eating habits of the person are very significant in this regard. Drinks which contains soda are very harmful to the people. According to the reports, drinking a can of soda every day increases the chance of a person getting type-2 diabetes by 22%. An inactive person suffering from overweight, having a BMI greater than 25 has a high probability of getting type-2 Diabetes. Obesity, lack of exercise and consumption of unhealthy meal which lacks in fiber and contains high fats are the main cause of getting type-2 diabetes.
Diabates Treatment & Care
The patients who suffer from type-1 diabetes needs to get insulin injections for the rest of their life. The insulin injection compensates the lack of insulin in the body. The insulin may be injected into the body with the help of syringes, or insulin pens which use cartridge and fine needles. An alternative to this method is the getting insulin pumps. It contains a small tube which is inserted under the skin. The tube is called cannula, which enables insulin to be delivered to the layers of fat, thereby it is absorbed by the blood.
Type-2 diabetes can be treated by various methods like medication, insulin injections and through a weight loss surgery depending upon the level of sugar in the blood. The most effective way to curb the disease is changing the lifestyle. The choice of diet is very important because the overweight and obesity have a direct link to it. The diet must have low calories and enough soluble fibers. The physical exercises are also recommended by the doctors to control blood sugar level. The exercise keeps the muscles in work and the glucose is extracted from the blood.
The testing of blood in all the type of diabetes is very important for controlling diabetes. It helps to determine the level of Glucose or sugar in the body. It will point out that you may not have taken insulin at the particular day or you may not have done the workout. By analyzing the result you can carve out a strategy to overcome the imbalance of sugar level in the body. The three possible tests for testing the blood sugar level are the A1C test, FPG (Fasting plasma glucose test), and OGTT (Oral Glucose tolerance test).
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